The Preraphaelites

The Preraphaelites

Today, the mention of Pre-Raphaelite painting brings to mind images of languid women with opulent red or dark hair, reclining in vividly coloured floral environments – but how did it all come to be?

Everything started in 1848, when three students at the Royal Academy of Arts, London, revolted against the academic tradition they were taught. They denounced academic painting as commonplace, conventional and mechanistic. Their names were Dante Gabriel RossettiJohn Everett Millais and William Holman Hunt, and they were about to change the face of British art.

Christ in His Parents' House, John Everett Millais, 1849 (Tate Britain, Londres)
Christ in His Parents' House, John Everett Millais, 1849 (Tate Britain, Londres)

The Pre-Raphaelite movement was a reform movement, but kept some similarities with the tradition: they fain painted history scenes and mythological episodes, imitated Nature to a realistic effect, and even followed the Victorianbidding of injecting moral subjects in their art. Here, Holman Hunt represented the ‘Awakening Conscience’ of a young kept woman, who rises from her lover’s lap to look eagerly outside the window, at the purity of the green canopy.

Holman Hunt, Awakening Conscience, 1853; Tate Museum, London; oil on canvas
Holman Hunt, Awakening Conscience, 1853; Tate Museum, London; oil on canvas

At the end of the 1850s, a second generation of artists joined the existing Brotherhood: Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris became pillars of the movement, and carried it out to the end of the century. Their apparition also resulted in an internal schism within the movement, between those with a preference for medieval subjects (Rossetti, Burne-Jones, Morris), and those adept of realism (Hunt and Millais).

This second generation introduced a noteworthy diversification in the media used to make art: precursor to the emergence of the British Arts and Crafts movement (1880s), William Morris set out to produce stain glass, wallpapers and even pottery, spreading the Pre-Raphaelite aesthetic to the decorative arts.

Saint Cecilia, Edward Burne-Jones/W. Morris, ca. 1900; W. Morris, 1900; Princeton University Art Museum, New Jersey; stained glass (detail)
Saint Cecilia, Edward Burne-Jones/W. Morris, ca. 1900; W. Morris, 1900; Princeton University Art Museum, New Jersey; stained glass (detail)
Oiseaux et grenades, William Morris, 1926; fond d'écran imprimé surflex
Oiseaux et grenades, William Morris, 1926; fond d'écran imprimé surflex

But what would bring eternal fame to the Pre-Raphaelites was their treatment of literary heroines from European mythology, the Legend of King Arthur, and the works of Shakespeare, Dante and other poets. Impersonating these heroines were a few unforgettable women – wives and lovers, but muses above all: Jane Burden, Fanny Cornforth, and Elizabeth Siddal. The modern-day temptresses lent their unconventional features (swan-like neck, strongly-defined jaws, thick eyebrows) to the timeless and mystical heroines, producing some of the most disturbingly beautiful portraits of women ever painted.

Ophelia, John Everett Millais, 1851-51; Tate Gallery, Britain; oil on canvas
Ophelia, John Everett Millais, 1851-51; Tate Gallery, Britain; oil on canvas
Lady Lilith, D. G. Rossetti, 1866-68; Delaware Art Museum, Delaware; oil on canvas
Lady Lilith, D. G. Rossetti, 1866-68; Delaware Art Museum, Delaware; oil on canvas
Proserpina, D. G. Rossetti, 1874; Tate Britain, London; oil on canvas
Proserpina, D. G. Rossetti, 1874; Tate Britain, London; oil on canvas
The Lady of Shalott, J. W. Waterhouse, 1888; Tate Britain, London; oil on canvas
The Lady of Shalott, J. W. Waterhouse, 1888; Tate Britain, London; oil on canvas
Cleopatra, J. W. Waterhouse, 1887; private collection; oil on canvas
Cleopatra, J. W. Waterhouse, 1887; private collection; oil on canvas

The Pre-Raphaelite movement per se ended with the death of its main protagonists at the end of the 19th century. However, its aesthetic lasted well into the 20th century, with artists such as John William Waterhouse, Aubrey Beardsley and Gustave Moreau underlining the importance of the Pre-Raphaelite legacy for other art movements, such as Symbolism or Aestheticism.

Salomé dancing in front of Herode, Gustave Moreau, 1876; Hammer Museum Los Angeles, CA
Salomé dancing in front of Herode, Gustave Moreau, 1876; Hammer Museum Los Angeles, CA; oil on canvas
The Dancer's Reward, Aubrey Beardsley, 1894, London; print on Japanese vellum
The Dancer's Reward, Aubrey Beardsley, 1894; London; print on Japanese vellum
%d bloggers like this: